Frederick II Hohenstaufen

   Emperor of Germany (qq.v.) from 1212-1250; he united Germany and the kingdom of Sicily (qq.v.) in 1198. Frederick's hostility to the papacy (q.v.) extended to all that the papacy (q.v.) supported, including the Latin Empire (q.v.). For this reason the emperor of Nicaea, John III Vatatzes (qq.v.), cultivated Frederick, hoping for help in recovering Constantinople (q.v.). In 1238 he sent troops to Italy (q.v.) to fight alongside those of Frederick, and John III married Frederick's daughter Constance of Hohenstaufen, who took the name Anna. Despite all this, John III gained very little from this alliance. When Frederick II died in 1250, his son Manfred (q.v.) reversed his father's policy and became an enemy to the Empire of Nicaea (q.v.).

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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